Millions of people each year find themselves compromised by movement disorders and certain other neurological conditions that result when this communication system is not working properly. Allergan has become a world leader in neurosciences by exploring neuromuscular treatment for serious or debilitating disorders caused by overactive muscle or gland activity.
Blepharospasm is a localised movement disorder that affects the muscles that control eyelid movement. The disorder is characterised by increased blinking caused by involuntary spasms of the muscles controlling the eyelid. Blepharospasm usually affects both eyelids and can progress to functional blindness (i.e., an inability to open the eyelids for any significant period of time). The prevalence of blepharospasm in the general population is approximately 5 in 100,000.
Peadiatric Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral palsy is the name given to a group of conditions in which there are disorders of movement, balance or posture caused by a defect or lesion/damage to parts of the brain which control the muscles, balance and voluntary movements. This may be caused by a developmental abnormality or an injury to the brain occurring while a baby is developing in the womb or during pregnancy, delivery or shortly after birth. Each child with Cerebral palsy is affected differently and the difficulties in controlling balance, movement and posture may vary from being hardly noticeable to very obvious. Cerebral palsy is a permanent condition but sometimes the effects become less apparent. In the industrialised world, the incidence of Cerebral palsy is about 2 per 1000 live births.
Dystonia is the name given to a group of conditions which involve the involuntary twitching, spasm or movement of muscles. In most cases, the underlying cause of dystonia is not known. Cervical dystonia is one of the most common forms of dystonia and affects the neck making it difficult to hold the head up straight. The neck muscles go into spasm, making the head pull, turn, jerk or tilt towards the shoulder. The shoulder may also be elevated towards the tilted head. In cervical dystonia, abnormal postures may be associated with distressing pain as well as movement and mobility difficulties. Cervical dystonia most often develops between the ages of 30 and 50 – although it occurs in all ages – and women are twice as likely to be affected as men. Cervical dystonia is a rare disease with prevalence rates of about 57 people in every per million.
Hemifacial spasm is a neuromuscular disorder characterised by unpredictable and involuntary twitching of facial muscles on one side of the face. The condition is progressive, beginning with the muscles around the eye and eventually affecting all muscles on one side of the face. The condition can take a significant psycho-social toll - uncontrollable facial spasms can hinder everyday activities such as driving and reading as well as altering facial appearance, making social interactions difficult. Hemifacial spasm is rare with current estimates that the total prevalence is approximately 0.01% of the population which would equate to about 500,000 people in EU countries.
Hyperhidrosis is a disorder that results in sweating that exceeds the normal amount required to maintain consistent body temperature. Patients with hyperhidrosis produce volumes of sweat that often cause social embarrassment or interfere with daily activities. Hyperhidrosis is not limited to the armpits, with some people experiencing excessive sweating on the palms of the hands, the feet and face. People with hyperhidrosis may need to change clothes several times per day, may only dress in certain colours to avoid sweat patches or may alter their work-life to avoid talking or presenting in public. It is estimated that about 3% of the population have this condition.
Spasticity is a form of movement disorder. Some stroke survivors may develop spasticity in their hands, wrists, arms or even legs. As a result, the muscle remains contracted, which can result in pain, restricted mobility and seriously interfere with the patient’s ability to independently perform daily activities such as dressing and personal hygiene. Characteristic postures of a patient suffering from spasticity may be a clenched fist, flexed wrist, bent elbow or arm pressed against the chest. Annually, 15 million people worldwide have a stroke, with approximately 5 million left permanently disabled.
Chronic migraine is a debilitating condition where patients suffer headaches for 15 or more days per month, with migraine on at least 8 of these days. In real terms, this means that a person with chronic migraine has a headache or migraine for more than half the days in a month. Patients can be very disabled due to chronic migraine with severe restrictions on the QOL for patients. Many people with chronic migraine find it hard to work normal hours or may have difficulties with everyday tasks such as household chores or participating in family activities. Chronic Migraine sufferers are more likely to have anxiety and depression, further contributing to the burden of the disease. Chronic Migraine is a very prevalent condition and is estimated that between 1.4% and 2.4% of the population suffer from chronic migraine.